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IVoRKS BY IVm. Elliot Griffis

THE MIKADO’S EMPIRE JAPANESE FAIRY WORLD COREA, THE HERMIT NATION

MATTHEW GALBRAITH PERRY

COREA

The Hermit Nation

I.— ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY

II.— POLITICAL AND SOCIAL COREA

III.— MODERN AND RECENT HISTORY

BY

WILLIAM ELLIOT GEIFFIS

LATE OF THE lilPEEIAL UJUVEBSITY OP TOKIO, JAPAH AUTHOR OF “THE MDCADO’S EMPIRE"

Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged

With Additional Chapter on COREA IN 1888

AUG 2 R

NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS 1888

CoPTBiOHT, 1882, 1888, bt CHARLES SCRIBXER’S SONS.

Tbow's

Printing and Bookbinding Company,

201-213 East Z2th St,,

NKW YORK.

TO

ALL COREAN PATRIOTS:

WHO SEEK

BT THE AID OF SCIENCE, TRUTH, AND PUKE RELIGION,

TO ENLIGHTEN

THEMSELVES AND THEIR FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN,

TO RID

THEIR LAND OF SUPERSTITION, BIGOTRY, DESPOTISM, AND PRIESTCRAFT— BOTH NATIVE AND FOREIGN

AND TO PRESERVE

THE INTEGRITY, INDEPENDENCE, AND HONOR, OF THEIR COUNTRY

THIS UNWORTHY SKETCH OF

THEIR PAST HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION

IS DEDICATED.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITIOH.

The reception of this work, both in the United States and Eu- rope, as well as in the East, has been most kindly. From those best able to criticise it thoroughly, by having made themselves familiar by travel in the interior of Corea beyond the ports and capital, have come gratifying words of high appreciation. Of course errors have been pointed out, and these, wherever proved, have been corrected in the present edition. The publishers have also generously permitted the inti-oduction of new matter, in the form of foot-notes, and the addition of a supplementary chapter. The author returns hearty thanks to Ensign G. C. Foulke and Lieutenant J. G. Bernadon, United States Navy ; General Lucius H. Foote, Mr. Pierre L. Jouy, Eev. Horace C. Underwood, Dr. H. N. Allen, Mr. W. G. Aston, Mr. Percival Lowell, Mr. W. E. Carles, Eev. Henrj’ Loomis, Soh Kwang Pom, Yu Kil Jun, Pien Su, and the other naval officers, natives, travellers, missionaries, and resi- dents in Corea who have aided him with their criticisms, or infor- mation. He will be grateful if others will point out inaccuracies. He is heartily glad that others have entered the field to awaken in- terest in the once hermit nation,” which is soon to become, let us hope, civilized, social, and Christian.

W. E. G.

Boston, June 30, 1888.

PREFATORY NOTES TO SECOND EDITION.

The publishers have informed the author of their intention to issue an edition of the present work in a cheaper form. By their courtesy, he would improve the opportunity to add a few words of comment upon our present knowledge of Corea, and upon affiiirs in Cho-sen since the treaty was made with the United States.

Concerning the first matter there is little to be said. A con- siderable number of naval, diplomatic, missionary, and commercial visitors from America and Europe have visited the Corean capital and parts adjacent Few of them have gone beyond beaten tracks ; and, owing to recent political disorders, thorough research has as yet hardly begun. We look, however, for results of value from the presence of the American missionaries and the scientific commission now in the country. We have not, therefore, made any addition to our text

The reception of this work, both in this country- and Europe, has been most kindly. Since its issue, in October, 1882, several events of interest have occun-ed, of which w'e here take note.

The treaty negotiated by Commodore Shufeldt was duly ratified by the United States Senate, and on Febmai*y 26, 1883, Presi- dent Arthur sent in the name of Lucius H. Foote as minister plenipotentiai-y to Corea. The appointment was confirmed on the following day. General Foote reached -Chi-mul-po, in the U. S. Steamship Monocacy, May 13th, and the formal ratifications of the treaty were exchanged in the capital six days later. The guns of the Monocacy the same which shelled the Han forts in 1870 fired the first salute ever given to the Corean flag.

The king responded by sending to the United States an em- bassy of eleven persons, led by Min Tong Ik and Hong Tong Sik, members respectively of the Conservative and Liberal parties. Their interview with President Ax’thur was in the paidors of the

PREFATORY XOTES TO SECOIfD EDITIOIf.

IX

Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, on September 17th. All the Coreans were di’essed in their national costume, which they wore habitually while in America. After spending some weeks in the study of American institutions in several cities, part of the embassy returned home by way of San Francisco, leaving one of their num- ber at Salem, Mass., to remain as a student ; while Min Yong Ik and two secretaries embarked on the U. S. Steamship Trenton, and, after visiting Europe, reached Seoul in June, 1884. The author spent a most profitable and pleasant evening, November 27th, with the three Coreans before they left New York. Many questions con- cerning their country were discussed. Mr. Everett Fraser, No. 123 Front Street, New York City, now acts as his Corean majesty’s consul-general in the United States.

On that same evening, November 27, 1883, there was a banquet in the Corean capital to celebrate the signing of the treaties made the day before with Great Britain and Gennany. Sir HaiTy Parkes and HeiT Zappe had succeeded in negotiating conventions which are even more liberal in their provisions than that made with the United States. The principal foreign adviser of the Corean gov- ernment since 1882 has been Herr Paul von MoUenforf, whom the Coreans employed at the suggestion of Li Himg Chang. Italy and Russia have also entered into diplomatic relations with Corea. Other evidences of the influence of the West upon Corea were the opening of a telegraph-ofiice at Fusan, February 28, 1884, on the completion of the submarine electric cable from Nagasaki, the emis- sion of native silver coins, and the inauguration of light-house and postal systems.

While evervdhing seemed to promise well for the nascent civili- zation imported from Christendom, the political situation was one fraught with danger. The military camps of two rival, almost hos- tile, nations were upon the soil. A Corean Liberal declares that the sending of Chinese troops to Corea in 1882 was the work of two or three Chinese leaders, under the pretext of protecting China from Russian invasion. Their real, but secret, purpose was, he de- clares, to prevent the Coreans from adopting western civilization. “The seed of the riot [of December 4-6, 1884] was sown by Chi- nese barbarism, and ripened by Chinese cruelty.”

X

PREFATORY NOTES TO SECOND EDITION.

The affair fvas in its origin a popular demonstration, instigated by Radical Progressives against Chinese influence as exhibited by a rapacious and undisciplined soldiery. It took the form of a mur- derous attack upon the conservative or pro-Chinese ministers of the court, five or six of whom were slain. During the excitement an angiy mob surrounded the palace, and the king sent for the pro- tection of the Japanese legation-guards. The Chinese military re- sented this, moved on the royal residence, and a collision was pre- cipitated, in which several tens of men were killed. A bloody battle ensued, and the Japanese, greatly outnumbered, retreated in good order to their legation. This building was besieged by the mob, and finally deserted by the Japanese, who, with all their country- men, left the city for Chi-mul-po. The legation, which had cost $80,000, and the army stores were, with much other property in the city, fired by the rioters. The foreigners in Seoul took refuge in General Foote’s house, and soon afterward left for Chi-mul-po. Dr. H. N. Allen, the American surgeon, was kept busy for weeks in attendance upon the victims wounded in the rioting, num- bering about one hundred. The house of Hong Yong Sik, who had been beheaded by the Chinese, was by government order turned into a hospital, or House of Cirtlized Virtue,” and put in charge of Dr. Allen. Ensign George W. Foulk and Lieutenant J. B. Bernadon, of the U. S. Navy, remained in the legation during the exodus of foreigners from Seoul, our flag not being lowered at any time. Foulk writes under date of June, 1885 : In

Corea, I used it [“Corea, the Hex’mit Nation,”] as a field book ; but in the disturbances of December last, my house was looted by the mob, and all my effects carried off. The library of the palace was lost at the same time ; so that I must infer the book you sent to His Majesty was also lost.”

The Corean Government has recently made claim upon that of Japan for the extradition of the Liberals who had fled to the lat- ter country a demand very properly refused. Three of these refugees arrived in San Francisco, June 11, 1885. Their names are Pak Yong Ho, a nobleman, and envoy to Japan in 1881 ; So Kwang Pom, secretary to the embassy to the United States in 1883 ; and Sai Jai Pil, a graduate of the Tokio I^Iihtaiy Academy. All were

PEEFATOKY NOTES TO SECOND EDITION.

XI

members of the Liberal ministry overthrown, in December last, during the tumult.

Negotiations between China and Japan relative to the affair of December, 1884, were carried on between the Mikado’s Ambassador Ito and Li Hung Chang, at Tientsin. They resulted in a treaty, w’hich was formally ratified May 7, 1885. Both powers agreed to withdraw their troops within four months, and to invite the King of Corea to have a sufficient military force drilled for the public security by officers selected from a third power (probably the United States). The text of the treaty was published May 27th.

The attention of Christian people is now being concentrated upon Corea as a missionary field. "With commendable promptness no less than ten American missionaries are, at this writing, either already in their field, or on the route thither. A number of native refugees in Japan are under Christian influences, and are earnest inquirers. Some are pronounced believers, and one Eijiutei is trans- lating the Bible into his native language. Three representative men are now among us, in our own land, studying our country and the faith of her people. The Corean character seems to be a happy medium between the stolid Chinaman and the changeable Japanese. With the memorj’ of recent martyrdoms, Corea may become Chris- tian sooner and more thoroughly than Japan, and aid in the mighty work of evangelizing China. This is the faith held by some who have studied the three peoples.

The feeling of the progressive men of Corea concerning them- selves and ourselves finds expression in a recent letter from one of their number. Tliese sentiments may fitly conclude our introduc- tory words to an edition of a book designed to make our new treaty-neighbor better known :

“We are the weakest nation in the orient, on account of our having been for thousands of years in a hermit condition.”

“We are a new-born nation, and but three years of age.”

If we should reckon our national age, in regard to our political relations to other nations in the world, it would begin from the treaty that we made with the United States.”

Schenectady, N. Y., July 6, 1885.

PREFACE.

In the year 1871, while living at Fukui, in the province of Echizen, Japan, I spent a few days at Tsuruga and Mikuni, by the sea which separates Japan and Corea. Like the Saxon shore of early Britain, the coast of Echizen had been in primeval times the landing-place of rovers, immigrants, and adventurers from the continental shore opposite. Here, at Tsuruga, Corean envoys had landed on their way to the mikado’s court. In the temple near by were shrines dedicated to the Corean Prince of ^limana, and to Jingu Kogo, Ojin, and Takenouchi, whose names in Japanese tra- ditions are associated ■with “The Treasure-land of the West.” Across the bay hung a sweet-toned bell, said to have been cast in Corea in a.d. 647 ; in which tradition untested by chemistry declared there was much gold. Among the hills not far away, nestled the little village of Awotabi (Green Nook), settled centuries ago by paper-makers, and visited a miUenium ago by tribute- bearers, from the neighboi'ing peninsula ; and famous for produ- cing the crinkled paper on which the diplomatic correspondence between the two nations was "wi-itten. Some of the first families in Echizen were proud of thefr descent from Cho-sen, while in the villages, where dwelt the Eta, or social outcasts, I beheld the de- scendants of Corean prisoners of war. Everywhere the finger of tradition pointed westward across the waters to the Asian main- land, and the whole region was eloquent of “kin beyond sea.” Birds and animals, fruits and falcons, vegetables and trees, farmers’ implements and the potter’s wheel, names in geography and things

PREFACE.

Xlll

in the arts, and doctrines and systems in religion were in some way connected with Corea.

The thought often came to me as I walked within the moss- grown feudal castle walls old in story, but then newly given up to schools of Westeim science and languages why should Corea be sealed and mysterious, when Japan, once a hermit, had opened her doors and come out into the world’s market-place ? TMien would Corea’s awakening come? As one diamond cuts another, why should not Cho-ka (Japan) open Cho-sen (Corea) ?

Turning with dehght and fascination to the study of Japanese histoiy and antiquities, I found much that reflected light upon the neighbor countiy. On my return home, I continued to seai-ch for materials for the story of the last of the hermit nations. Xo mas- ter of research in China or Japan having attempted the task, from what Locke calls the roundabout ■\’iew,” I have essayed it, with no claim to originahty or profound research, for the benefit of the general reader, to whom Corea suggests,” as an American lady said, no more than a sea-shell.” Many ask “What’s in Corea ?” and “Is Corea of any importance in the histoiy of the world?”

My purpose in this work is to give an outline of the history of the Laud of Morning Calm as the natives call their countr}" from before the Christian era to the present year. As an honest tale speeds best, being iflainly told,” I have made no attempt to em- bellish the narrative, though I have sought infonnation from sources from within and without Corea, in maps and charts, coins and pottery, the language and art, notes and narratives of eye-wit- nesses, pencil-sketches, paintings and photogi'aphs, the standard histories of Japan and China, the testimony of sailor and diploma- tist, missionary' and castaway, and the digested knowledge of critical scholars. I have attempted nothing more than a historical outline of the nation and a glimpse at the political and social life of the people. For lack of space, the original manuscript of Kecent and Modem History,” part HI., has been greatly abridged, and many topics of interest have been left untouched. "

The bulk of the text was written between the years 1877 and

XIV

PREFACE.

1880 ; since ^vliich time the literatiu’e of the subject has been en- riched by Ross’s “Corea” and Corean Primer,” besides the Gram- mar and Dictionary of the Corean language made by the French missionaries. With these linguistic helps I have been able to get access to the language, and thus clear up doubtful points and ob- tain much needed data. I have boirowed largely from Dallet’s “Histoire d’Eglise de Coree,” especially in the chapters devoted to Folk-lore, Social Life, and Christianity. In the Bibliogi’aphy fol- lowing the Preface is a hst of works to which I have been more or less indebted.

IMany friends have assisted me wdth correspondence, advice, or help in translation, among whom I must first thank my former stu- dents, Hasegawa, Hiraii, Haraguchi, Matsui, and Imadatte, and my newer Japanese friends, Ohgimi and Kimura, while others, alas ! will never in this world see my record of acknowledgment K. Yaye' and Egi Takato whose interest w^as manifested not only in discussion of mooted points, but by search among the book-shops in IGoto and TOkio, which put much valuable standard matter in my hands. I also thank Mr. Charles Lanman, Secretary of the Legation of Japan in Washington, for four ferrotypes taken in Seoul in 1878 by members of the Japanese embassy ; INR. D. R. Clark, of the United States Transit of Venus Survey, for foui- photographs of the Corean villages in Russian Manchuria ; 3R. R. Ideura, of Tokio, for a set of photographs of Kang-wa and vicinity, taken in 1876, and ]VIr. Ozawa Nankoku, for sketches of Corean articles in Japanese museums. To Lieutenant Wadhams, of the United States Navy, for the use of charts and maps made by himself while in Corea in 1871, and for photographs of flags and other trojDhies, now at Annapolis, cajjtured in the Han forts ; to Fleet-Surgeon H. O. iMayo, and other officers of the United States Na^y, for valuable informa- tion, I hereby express my grateful appreciation of kindness shown. I would that Admiral John Rodgers, Commodore H. C. Blake, and Minister F. F. Low were living to receive my thanks for their courtesies personally shown me, even though, in attempting to ■wi’ite history, T have made criticisms also. To Lieutenant N. Y. Yanagi, of the HjTographic Bm-eau, of the Japanese Navy, for a

PREFACE.

XV

set of charts of the coast of Corea ; to IVIr. Metcalfe, of Milwaukee, for photographs of Coreaus ; to Miss Mai’shall, of New York, for making colored copies of the battle-flags cai^tured by our naval battalion in 1871, and for the many favors of correspondents in St. Petersburg, Mr. Hoffman Atkinson ; in Peking, Jugoi Arinori Moii ; in Tukio, Dr. D. B. McCartee, Hon. David Mui’ray, Kev. J. L. Amerman, and others whose names I need not mention. To Gen. George W. McCuUum, Vice-President, and to IMr. Leopold Lin- dau. Librarian, of the American Geogi-aphical Society, I return my warmest thanks ; as well as to my dpar wife and helpmeet, for her aid in copying, proof reading, suggestions, and criticism during the progress of the work.

In one respect, the presentation of such a subject by a compiler, while shorn of the fascinating element of i^ersonal experience, has an advantage even over the narrator who describes a cormtrj' through which he has travelled. With the various reports of many wit- nesses, in many times and places, before him, he views the whole subject and reduces the many impressions of detail to unity, cor- recting one by the other. Travellers usually see but a jjortion of the countiy at one time." The compiler, if able even in part to con- trol his authorities, and if anything more than a tyro in the art of literary appraisement, may be able to furnish a hand-book of in- formation more valuable to the general reader.

In the use of my authorities I have given heed to Bacon’s ad- vice— tasting some, chewing others, and swallowing few. In ancient history, original authorities have been sought, and for the story of modem life, only the reports of careful eye-witnesses have been set down as facts ; while opinions and judgments of alien occidentals concerning Corean social life^re rarely bon’owed wdthout due flavoring of critical salt.

Corean and Japanese life, customs, beliefs, and history are often reflections one of the other. Much of what is reported from Corea, which the eye-witnesses themselves do not appear to understand, is perfectly clear to one familiar with Japanese life and history. China, Corea, and Japan are as links in the same chain of civil- ization. Corea, like Cypnis between Egypt and Greece, wiU yet

XVI

PREFACE.

supply many missing details to the comparative student of language, art, science, the development of civilization, and the distribution of hfe on the globe.

Some future writer, with more ability and space at command than the undersigned, may discuss the question as to how far the opening of Corea to the commerce of the world has been the result of internal forces ; the scholar, by his original research, may prepare the materials for a worthy history of Corea dmang the two or three thousand years of her history ; the geologist or miner may deter- mine the question as to how far the metallic wealth of Corea will affect the monetai’y equilibrium of the world. The missionary has yet to prove the full power of Christianity upon the people— and before Corean paganism, any form of the religion of Jesus, Boman, Greek or Keformed, should be welcomed ; while to the linguist, the man of science, and the political economist, the new country opened by American diplomacy presents problems of profound in- terest.

W. E. G.

SCHENECTADT, N. Y., October 2, 1882.

BIBLIOGBAPHY,

Tite following is a list of books and papers containing information about Corea. Those of primary value to which the compiler of this work is specially indebted are marked with an asterisk (*) ; those to which slight obligation, if any, is acknowledged with a double asterisk ; and those which he has not consulted, with a dagger (f). See also under The Corean Language and Cartography, in the Appendix.

* History of the Eastern Barbarians. Book cxv. contains a sketch of the

tribes and nations occupying the northeastern seaboard of China, with the territory now known as Manchuria and Corea.” This extract from a History of the Later Han Dynasty (25-220 A.D.), by a Chinese scholar of the fifth century, has been translated into English by Mr. Alexander Wylie, and printed in the Revue de TExtreme Orient, No. 1, 1882. Du Halde and De Mailla, in French, and Ross, in English, have also given the substance of the Chinese writer’s work, which also furnishes the basis of Japanese accounts of Corean history previous to the fourth century, f The Subjugation of Chaou-seen, by A. Wylie. (Atti del IV. Cong. int. degli Orient, ii., pp. 309-315, 1881.) This fragment is a translation of the 95th book of the History of the Former Han Dynasty of China.

* Empire de la Chine et la Tartarie Chinoise, par P. du Halde.

The Kojiki and Nihongi, written in Japan during the eighth century, throws much light on the early history of Corea.

* Wakan-San-sai Dzuye. Article on Cho-sen in this great Japanese Encyclo-

paedia.

f Tong-Kuk Tong-Kan (General View of the Eastern Kingdom), a native Co- rean history written in Chinese.

* Zenrin Koku Iloki (Precious Jewels from a Neighboring Country), by

Shiuho. Japan, 1586.

* Corea, its History, Manners, and Customs, by John Ross. 1vol., pp. 404. II-

lustrations and maps. Paisley, 1880..

* Tlie Cliinese Reader’s Manual, by W. Fred. Mayers. 1 vol., pp. 440. Shang-

hae, 1874. An invaluable epitome of Chinese history, biography, chro- nology, bibliography, and whatever is of interest to the student of Chinese literature.

* K6-ch5 Rekidai Enkaku Zukai. Historical Periods and Changes of the

Japanese Empire, with maps and notes, by Otsuki Toyo.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

xviii

**San Koku Tsu-ran To-setsu. Mirror of the Three [Tributary] Kingdoms, Cho-sen, Riu kiu, and Yezo, by Ein Shihei, 1785. This work, with its maps, was translated into French by J. Klaproth, and published in Paris, 1832. 1 vol. 8vo, pp. 288, of which pp. 158 relate to Cho-sen. Digested

also in Siebold’s Archiv.

** Archiv zur Bescriebung von Japan, by Franz von Siebold. This colossal work contains much matter in text and illustrations relating to Corea, and the digest of several Japanese books, in the part entitled Xachrichten uber Korai, Japan’s Bezage mit der Koraischen Halbinsel und mit Schina.

** Corea und dessen Einfluss auf die Bevolkerung Japans. Zeit. fiir Ethncl- ogie, Zitzungbericht VIII. p. 78, 1876. P. Kempermann.

** O Dai Ichi Ran. This work, containing the annals of the emperors of Ja- pan, is a bird’s-eye view of the principal events in Japanese history, written in the style of an almanac, which Titsingh copied down from translations made by Japanese who spoke Dutch. Klaproth revised and corrected Titsingh’s work, and published his own version in 1834. Paris and Lon- don, 8vo, pp. 460. This work contains many references to Corea and the relations of the two countries, transcribed from the older history.

** Tableaux Historiques de I’Asie, depuis la monarchie de Cyrus jusque nos jours, accompagnes de recherches historiques et ethnographiques, etc. Par J. Klaproth, Paris, 1826. Avec un atlas in folio. This manual of the political geography of Asia is very useful, but not too accurate.

f A Heap of Jewels in a Sea of Learning (Gei Kai Shu Jin ; Jap. pron.). A chapter from this Chinese book treats of Corea.

f Cho-sen Hitsu Go-shin. A collection of conversations with the pen, with a Corean who could not speak Japanese. By Ishikawa Rokuroku Sanjin, Yedo.

* The Classical Poetry of the Japanese. By Basil Hall Chamberlain. Lon-

don, 1880.

** An Outline History of Japanese Education, New York, 1876. This mono- graph, prepared for the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, reviews the educational influences of Corea upon Japan. The information given is, with other data, from Klaproth, utilized in Pickering’s Chronological History of Plants, by Charles Pickering, M.D., Boston, 1879.

* Japanese Chronological Tables. By William Bramsen, TGkio, 1880. An in-

valuable essay on Japanese chronology, which was, like the Corean, based on the Chinese system. We have used this work of the lamented scholar (who died a few months after it was published) in rendering dates ex- pressed in terms of the Chinese into those of the Gregorian or modern system.

•* History of the Mongols. 3 vols. pp. 1827. London, 1876. By Henry Howorth. This portly work is full of the fruits of research concerning the people led by Genghis Khan. It contains excellent maps of Asia, and of Mon- golia, and Manchuria, illustrating the Mongol conquests.

f Cho-sen Ki-che. (Memorandum upon Corean Affairs.) The Chinese ambassa- dor sent by the Ming emperor in 1450, gives in this little work an account of his journey, which throws light upon the political and geographical situation of Cho-sen and China at that time. Quoted by M. Scherzer, but not translated.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

XIX

* Xihon Guaishi. Military History of Japan, by Rai Sanyo. This is the

Japanese standard history. It was published in 1827 id twenty-two vol- umes. It covers the period from the Taira and Minamoto families to that of the Tokugawa in the seventeenth century. The first part of this work was translated into English by Mr. Ernest Satow, and published in The Japan Mail at Yokohama, 1872-74. In the latter portion the invasion of Cho-sen, 1592-97, is outlined.

*Cho-sen Seito Shimatsuki. A work in five volumes, giving an account of the embassies, treaties, documents relating to the invasion of 1592-97, with an outline of the war, geographical notes, with nine maps by Yama- zaki Masanagi and Miura Katsuyoshi.

* Illustrated History of the Invasion of Cho-sen. Written by Tsurumine

Hikoichiro. Illustrations by Hashimoto Giokuron. 20 vols. Yedo, 1853. This popular work, besides an outline of Corean history from the beginning, condensed from local legends and Chinese writers, details the operations of war and diplomacy relating to Hideyoshi’s invasion. It is copiously illustrated with first-class wood engravings. It has not been translated.

* Cho-sen Monogatari. A Diary and Narrative of the Japanese Military Opera-

tions in Cho-sen during the Campaign of 1594-97, by Okoji Hidemoto. Copied out and published in 1072, and again in 1849. This narrative of an eye-witness was written by the author at the time of the events de- scribed, and afterward copied by his own son and deposited in the temple at which his ancestors worshipped. This vivid and spirited story of the second invasion of Cho-sen by Ilideyoshi has been translated into German by Dr. A. Pfizmaier, under the title Der Feldzug der Japaner gegen Corea, im Jahre, 1.597. 2 vols. Vienna, 1875 : 4to, pp. 98 ; 1870 : 4to, pp. 58.

** Chohitsuroku. History of the Embassies, Treaties, and War Operations during the Japanese Invasion. This work is by a Corean author, who was one of the ministers of the king throughout the war. It is written in Chinese, has a map, and gives the Corean side of the history of affairs from about 1585 to 1.598. 3 vols.

* Tliree Severall Testimonies Concerning the mighty Kingdom of Coray,

tributary to the Kingdom of China, and bordering upon her Northeastern Frontiers, and called bj’ the Portugales, Coria, etc., etc., collected out of Portugale yeerely Japonian Epistles, dated 1590, 1592, 1.594. In Hak- luyt, London, 1000.

*Hideyoshi’s Invasion of Korea. Trans. A.siatic Society of Japan. By W. G. Aston. In these papers Mr. Aston gives the results of a studj' of the cam- paign of 1592-97, as found in .Japanese and Corean authors.

•• Lettre Annuelle de Mars 1.593, ecrite par le P. Pierre Gomez aii P. Cliiude Acquavira, general de la Compagnie de Jesus. Milan, L597, p. 112 et suiv. In Hakluyt.

* Histoire de la Religion Chri-tienne au Japon. Par Leon Pages. 2 vols.,

text and documents. Paris, 1869.

•* Histoire des deux Conquerans Tartares, qui ont subjuge la Chine, par le R. P. Pierre Joseph D’Orliens.

*Cho-sen Monogatari (Romantic Narrative of Tr.avels in Corea), by two Men from Mikuni, in Echizen, cast ashore in Tartary in 1045. This work is digested in Siebold’s Archiv.

XX

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

* Narrative of an Unlucky Voyage and Imprisonment in Corea, 1653-1667.

In Astley’s and Pinkerton’s Voyages. By Hendrik Hamel.

* Imperial Chinese Atlas, containing maps of China and each of the Provinces,

including Shing-king and the neutral strip.

Histoire de I’Eglise de Coree, par Ch. Ballet. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 982. Paris," 1874. This excellent work contains 192 pages of introduction, full of ac- curate information concerning the political social life, geography, and language of Corea, and a history of the introduction and progress of Ro- man Christianity, and the labors of the French missionaries, from 1784- 1866. It contains also a map and four charts of Corean writing.

* Une Expedition en Coree. In la Tour du Monde for 1873 there is an ar-

ticle of 16 pp. (401-417) with illustrations, by M. H. Zuber, a French naval officer, who was in Corea in 1866 under Admiral Roze. An excel- lent descriptive paper by an eye-witness.

* Diary of a Chinese Envoy to Corea (Journal d’une Mission en Coree), by

Koei Ling, Ambassador of his Majesty the Emperor of China, to the court of Cho-sen in 1866. Translated from the Chinese into French by F. Scherzer, Interpreter to the French Legation at Peking. 8vo, pp. 77. Paris, 1882. This journal of the last Chinese ambassador to Seoul is well rendered, and is copiously supplied with explanatory notes, and a colored map of the author’s route from Peking through Chili, Shing-King, via, Mukden, and through three provinces of Corea to Seoul, t Many memoirs and special papers prepared by French officers in the expedi- tion to Corea in 1866 were prepared and read before local societies at Cherbourg, Lyons, etc.

f Expedition de Coree. Revue maritime et coloniale, February, 1867, pp. 474-481.

f Paris. Moniteur, 1866-67.

** Lettre sur la Cor& et son Eglise Clirctienne. Bulletin de la Societe Geographique de Lyon, 1876, pp. 278-282, and June, 1870, pp. 417-422, and map.

** The Corean Martyrs. By Canon Shortland. 1 vol., pp. 115. London. Com- piled from the letters of the French missionaries.

”'*Nouvelle Geographie Universelle. This superb treasury of geographical science, still unfinished, contains a full summary of our knowledge of Corea, especially showing the prominent part which French navigators, scholars, and missionaries have taken in its exploration. Paris.

♦♦ Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World. By William R. Broughton. 2 vols. 4to, with atlas. London, 1804.

** Voyage Round the World. By Jean Francois de Gallon de La Perouse. London, 1799.

** Voyages to the Eastern Seas in the year 1818. By Basil Hall. New York, London, and revised by Captain Hall in 1827. Jamaica, N. T.

* Narrative of a Voyage in His Majesty’s late Ship Alceste, to the Yellow Sea,

along the Coast of Corea, and through its numerous hitherto undiscovered Islands, etc., etc. By John McLeod, Surgeon of the Alceste. 1 vol., pp. 288 (see pp. 88-53). London, 1877. A witty and lively narrative.

** Voyages along the Coast of China(Corea), etc. By Charles Gutzlaff. 1 vol., pp. 332. New Y’ork, 1833. (From July 17, to August 17, 1832 ; pp. 254-287.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

XXI

‘Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, during the years 1843-46. By Captain Sir E. Belchdr. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 574r-378. London, 1848. Vol. i. pp. 324-358; vol. ii., pp. 444—466, relate to Corea.

American Commerce with China. By Gideon Nye, Esq. In the Far East.

Shanghae, 1878. A history of the commercial relations of the United States with China, especially before 1800.

Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, China, and Japan, 1866-81.

Report of the Secretary of the Navy to Congress, pp. 275-313. 1872.

Private Notes, Charts, and Maps of Officers of the United States Navy who

were in Corea in 1871.

**A Summer Dream of ’71. A Story of Corea. By T. G. The Far East. Shanghae, April, 1878.

Journey through Eastern Mantchooria and Korea. By Walton Grinnell.

Journal American Geographical Society, 1870-71, pp. 283-300.

Japan and Corea. A valuable monograph in six chapters, by Mr. E. H.

House, in The Tokio Times, 1877.

•* On a Collection of Crustacea made in the Corean and Japanese Seas. J. Muirs, 1879. London Zoological Society’s Proceedings (pp. 18-81, pis. 1-113). Reviewed by J. S. Kingsley. Norwich, N. Y. American Naturalist.

•* A Private Trip in Corea. By Frank Cowan, M.D. The Japan Mail, 1880. f Tlie Leading Men of Japan. By Charles Lanman. Boston, 1882. Contains a chapter on Corea.

Manuscript volume of pencil notes made by Kawamura Kuanshiu, an officer

on the Japanese gunboat Unyo-kuan, during her cruise and capture of the Kang-wa Fort, 1875. Partly printed in the Japan Mail.

Journals of Japanese Military and Diplomatic Officers who have visited Corea,

and Correspondence of the Japanese newspapers, from Seoul, Fusan, Gen- san, etc. These liave been partly translated for the English press at Yo- kohama.

Correspondence, Notes, Editorials, etc., in the English and French newspa-

pers published in China and Japan.

** Maru-maru Shimbun (Japanese Punch).

Cho-sen : Its Eight Administrative Divisions. 1 vol. Tokio, Japan, 1882.

Cho-sen Jijo. A short Account of Corea, its History, Productions, etc. 2

vols. Toki'i, 1875.

Cho-sen Bunkenroku (Tilings Seen and Heard concerning Corea). By Sato

Hakushi. 2 vols. Tokio, 1875.

Travels of a Naturalist in Japan [Corea] and Manchuria. By Arthur Adams.

1 vol., pp. 334. London, 1870. See chaps, x., xi., pp. 125-166. •‘Ueberdie Reise der Kais. Corvette Hertha, in besondere nach Corea. Kramer, ^larine Prediger. Zeit. fur Ethnologie, 1873. Verhandlungen, pp. 49-54.

•• A Forbidden Land. By Ernest Oppert. 1 vol., pp. 349. Illustrations, charts, etc. New York, 1880.

** Journeys in North China. By Rev. A. Williamson. 2 vols. 16mo. Lon- don, 1870. Besides a chapter on Corea, this work contains an excellent map of the country north and east of Cho-sen •* The Middle Kingdom. By S. Wells Williams.

XXll

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

’"‘Consular Reports in the Blue Books of the British Government, especially the Reports of Mr. McPherson, Consul at Xiu-chwang. January, 1H6G.

* Handbook for Central and Northern Japan, with maps and jjlans. Satow

and Hawes. 1 vol. 16mo, pp. 48!). This work, which leaves nothing to be desired as a guide-book, contains several references to Corean art and history.

The Wild Coasts of Nipon. By Captain H. C. St. John (who surveyed some parts of Southern Corea in H.B.M.S. Sylvia). See chap, xii., pp. 2.35-255, with a map of Corea.

■"* Darlegun aus der Geschichte und Geographie Coreas. PfLzmaier. 8vo, pp. 5C. Vienna, 1874.

f Petermann’s Mittheilungen, No. 1, Carte No. 19, 1871.

*• Das Konigreich Korea. Von Klodeu. Aus alien Welth., x.. Nos. 5 u. 6. f Corea. Geographical Magazine. (S. Mossman.) vi. p. 148, 1877. f Corea. By Captain Allen Young, Royal Geographical Society. Vol. ix.. No. 6, pp. 296-300.

'"’"China, with an Appendix on Corea. By Charles Eden. 1 vol., pp. 281- 322. London. A popular compilation.

Korea and the Lost Tribes, and Map and Chart of Korea. Text and illus- trations. Tlie title of this work is sufficient. Even the bibliography of Corea has a comic side.

** Chi-shima (Kurile Islands) and Russian Invasion. A lecture delivered in Japanese, before the Tokio United Geographical Society, February 24, 1882. By Admiral Enomoto. This valuable historical treatise, translated for the Japan Mail and Japan Herald, contains much information about Russian operations in the countries bordering the North Pacific and the Coreans north of the Tumen.

t Bulletin de la Societe Geographique, 1875. Corean villages in the Russian possessions described.

*’" Ravensteins, The Russians on the Amoor. London, 1861. f Die Insel Quelpart. Deutsche Geogr. Blatter, 1879. iii.. No. 1, S. 45-46. t A Trip to Quelpaert. Nautical Magazine, 1870, No. 4, p. 321-325.

Tlie Edinburgh Review of 1872, and Fortnightly Review of 1875, contain articles on Corea.

* The Missionary Record of the United Presb^-terian Church of Scotland,

Edinburgh, containing the Correspondence and Notes of the Missionaries laboring among the Chinese and Coreans, and who have translated the New Testament into Corean.

t La Coree, par M. Paul Tournafond, editor of L’Exploration, a geographical journal published in Paris, which contains frequent notes on Corea, f La Coree, ses Ressources, son avenir commercial, par Maurice Jametel. L’Economiste Fran^ais, Juillet 23, 1881.

* The Japan Herald, The Japan Mail, Tlie Japan Gazette, L’Echo du Japan,

of Yokohama, and North China Herald, Shanghae, have furnished much information concerning recent events in Corea.

Corea, the Last of the Hermit Nations. Sunday Magazine, New York, IVIay, 1878. Corea and the United States. The Independent, New York, Nov. 17, 1881. Corea, the Hermit Nation. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, New York, 1881, No. 3.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

xxiii

Chautauqua Text-Books, No. 34. Asiatic History ; China, Corea, Japan. 16mo, pp. 86. New York, 1881.

Library of Universal Knowledge, articles Corea, Fusan, Gensan, Kang-wa, etc. New York, 1880.

Cyclopaedia of Political Science, etc., article Corea. Chicago, 1881.

The Corean Origin of Japanese Art. Century Magazine. December, 1882. By Wm. Elliot GrifiSs.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.

Ix ,the transliteration of Corean names into English, an attempt has been made to render them in as accurate and simple a manner as is, under the cir- cumstances, possible. The Coreans themselves have no uniform system of spelling proper names, nor do the French missionaries agree in their render- ings— as a comparison of their maps and writings shows. Our aim in this work has been to use as few letters as possible.

Japanese words are all pronounced according to the European method a as in father, i as in prey, e as in men, i as in machine, o as in bone, m as in tune, u as in mn ; ai as in aide, ua as in quarantine, ei as in feign, and iu is sounded as yu ; g is always hard ; and c before a vowel, g soft, /, q, s used as z, x, aud the combinations ph and th are not used. The long vowel, rather diphthong o, or oho, is marked o.

The most familiar Chinese names are retained in their usual English form.

Corean words are transliterated on the same general principles as the Japa- .Aese, though ears familiar with Corean wilt find the obscure sound between 0 aud short u is written with either of these letters, as Chan-yon, or In-chiun, or Kiung-sang. Ch may sometimes be used instead ofy / and e where o ov a or u might more correctly be used, as in Kang-wen, or Wen-chiu. Instead of the French on. or ho, we have written W, as in Whang-hai, Kang-wa, rather than Hoang-hai, Kang-hoa, Kang-ouen, Tai-ouen Kun, etc. ; and in place of te we have used ch, as Kwang-chiu rather than Kwaug-tsiu, and Wen-chiu than Oueu-tsiu.

MAPS AND PLANS.

PAGE

Ancestral Seats of the Fuyu Kace, 25

Sam-han, 30

Ancient Japan and Corea, ......... 56

The Neutral Territory, .......... 85

The Japanese Military Operations of 1592, 99

The Campaign in the North, 1592-1593 107

The Operations of the Second Invasion, 131

Plan of Uru-san Castle, 138

Home of the Manchius and their Migrations, 155

The Jesuit Survey of 1709, 165

Ping-an Province, ........... 181

The Yellow Sea Province, ......... 185

The Capital Province, 188

Military Geography of Seoul, 190

Chung-chong Province, 194

Chulla-do, . . .......... 199

The Province Nearest Japan, 204

Kang-wen Province, 208

Corean Frontier Facing Manchuria and Russia, ..... 210 Southern Part of Ham-kiung, ......... 215

The Missionary’s Gateway into Corea, 364

Border Towns of Northern Corea, ........ 365

The French Naval and Military Operations, 1866, ..... 379

Map Illustrating the General Sherman Affair, ..... 393

Map Illustrating the China Affair, ....... 400

Map of the American Naval Operations in 1871, 415

General Map of Corea,

At end of volume.

CONTENTS

PART L

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Tlie Corean Peninsula, 1